History of Babur : The Mughal rulers ruled India for about 300 years, during this time many great and brave warriors of the Mughal Empire also came, whose description is seen in Indian history, but Babur of the Mughal dynasty was not only a great warrior but also the greatest ruler. He was the one who laid the foundation of the Mughal dynasty.
|Name : Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
|Born : 14 February 1483 (Andijan, Uzbekistan)|
|Mother Name : Kutlug Nigaar Khanum|
|Father Name : Umar Sheikh Mirza 2, Sheikh of Fargana|
|Wives : Ayesha Sultan Begum, Zainab Sultan Begum, Mausa Sultan Begum, Meham Begum, Gulrukh Begum, Dildar Begum, Mubaraka Yurufzhai, Gulnar Aghacha|
|Children Name : Humayun, Kamran Mirza, Askari Mirza, Hindal Mirza, Fakhr-un-Nissa, Gulrang Begum, Gulbadan Begum, Gulchehra Begum, Altoon Bishik, alleged son|
|Brother : Changez Khan|
|Death : 26 December 1530 (Agra, Mughal Empire)|
History of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire
History of Babur – Babur was the first Mughal emperor of India whose full name was Zahiruddin Mohammad Babur. Emperor Babur of the Mughal Empire was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, the ruler of the Fargana Valley. After the death of his father, he was given the responsibility of the state at the age of just 11, he was placed on the throne at an early age, due to which he also had to face opposition from his relatives.
From a young age, the brave warrior started military campaigns to expand his territories. However, during his initial campaigns, this valiant warrior lost his control over the city of Fargana.
But he let this initial setback fail in his pursuit of power and partnered with the Safadic ruler Ismail I to conquer parts of Central Asia. Eventually he set his eyes on the Indian subcontinent and attacked the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Ibrahim Lodi and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat.
With this the Mughal Empire was started in India. He soon faced opposition from Rana Sanga of Mewad, who treated Babur as a foreigner and challenged him. Babur successfully defeated Rana in the battle of Khanwa. Apart from being an aspiring poet, he was a gifted poet and a lover of nature.
Babar’s Childhood and Early Life – Babar Biography
The Mughal Emperor Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in the Fergana Valley of Andijan city as Zahiruddin Mohammad Babar. Babur’s father’s name was Umrekh Mirza who was the owner of the fiefdom of Fargana and his mother’s name was Qutulnigar Khan.
Babur was a descendant of Timur on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. Thus achieving victory and efficient administration was in Babur’s blood.
Mughal – Mughal emperor Babur came from the Barla tribe of Mongol origin, but different members of the tribe considered themselves to be Turkish due to language, customs and living in Turkish areas for a long time. So the Mughal emperor won a lot of support from the Turks and the empire he founded was Turkey.
Let us tell you that Babur’s family had become a member of the Chagatai clan, they were called by this name only. He was the fifth descendant of Timur from the paternal side and the 13th descendant of Chagez Khan from the maternal side.
The new empire established by Babur. He was of “Chagatai ancestry” of Turkish race. Which was named after the second son of Chagez Khan. Babur’s mother tongue was Chagatai, in which he was proficient, Babur also wrote his biography in Chagatai language by the name of Baburnama, but Persian was the common language of that time. Babur’s father, Umar Sheikh Mirza ruled the valley of Fargana. Because at that time there was no fixed law of succession among the Turks.
At the same time, when Babar was only 11 years old, his father Umar Sheikh Mirza said goodbye to the world, due to which Babar was burdened with responsibilities from a young age. The initial period has been very challenging and struggle for Babur, but later this Mughal emperor ruled many parts of India.
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Let us tell you that Babar had won his native place Fargana in the initial phase but he could not rule it for a long time and he had to face defeat, at that time he had to go through a very difficult period.
But at this time the Mughal emperor was not abandoned by many associates. At the same time, the Mughal emperor, who never gave up, threw such a dice that he became the ruler of Afghanistan. In fact, Emperor Babur, who was rich in talent, took advantage of the time when his enemies were playing enmity with each other and in 1502 won Kabul, Afghanistan.
After which he got the title of ‘Padshah’. Before Padshah, Babur used to hold the ancestral title of “Mirza”. This Mughal emperor with steely intentions also conquered his native place Fargana and Samarkand at that time.
When Babur was invited to visit India – Who Invited Babur to India
Mughal emperor Babur wanted to establish his control in Central Asia but Babur failed to rule in Central Asia but still the strong intentions of the Mughal emperor never let him give up, his thoughts always inspired him to move forward, this is the reason. That the Mughal emperor’s eyes went on India, then the political condition of India had also deteriorated, which the Mughal emperor took advantage of and decided to spread his empire in India.
At that time the Sultan of Delhi was fighting many battles, due to which there was political disintegration in India. Let us tell you that at that time some territories in the northern region of India were under Afghan and some Rajput, but the areas around them were independent, which did not come under the territory of Afghani and Rajputs.
At that time when Babur attacked Delhi, there were many independent states like Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Sindh, Kashmir, Mewar, Delhi Khandesh, Vijayanagar and Vichin Bahmani princely states.
Let us tell you that Babur has also mentioned five Muslim rulers and two Hindu rulers in his book Baburnama. All the Muslim rulers were from Delhi, Malwa, Gujarat and Bahmani while there were two Hindu rulers from Mewar and Vijayanagar.
Along with this, the Mughal emperor Babur, in his autobiography Baburnama, has called the then ruler of Vijayanagara, Krishna Deva Raya, the most intelligent and powerful emperor of contemporary India.
When the Mughal emperor invaded Delhi, the Sultan of Delhi was Ibrahim Lodi, but he was not able to rule the Sultanate of Delhi, even Daulat Khan, the Subedar of Punjab, did not like Ibrahim Lodi’s work at that time. Uncle Alam Khan was a main contender for the Delhi Sultanate and he was highly impressed by Babur’s bravery and the efficiency of his efficient governance, so Daulat Khan Lodi and Ibrahim’s uncle Alam Khan Lodi sent an invitation to the Mughal Emperor Babur to visit India.
At the same time, Babur happily accepted this invitation because Babur already had an eye on the Delhi Sultanate and he understood this invitation as his advantage and went to Delhi to expand the Mughal Empire in India.
Let us tell you that Babur made the first attack on India in 1519 AD at Bajaur and in the same attack he also won the fort of Bhera. In Baburnama, Mughal emperor Babur mentions the victory of Bhera’s fort, while the brave ruler Babur was the first to use gunpowder and artillery in this battle.
Mughal emperor Babur had invaded India 4 times before winning the battle of Panipat and the battle of Panipat was his fifth battle in India in which he won. and extended his empire.
Babur’s victory in the battle of Panipat – Battle of Panipat
The first battle of Panipat was the biggest battle of Babur. The battle was started in April 1526 when Babur’s army attacked the Lodi kingdom in North India.
Let us tell you that for this battle, Ibrahim Lodi’s uncle Alam Khan and the Subedar of Punjab had sent an invitation to Babur for the battle of Panipat. At the same time, the skilled ruler Babur had investigated it 4 times before fighting in this battle.
At the same time, the people of Afghanistan had also invited Babur to attack in Afghanistan. Not only this, Raja Sangram Singh of Mewad also asked to fight against Babur Ibrahim Lodi because Rana Singh was the old enmity with Ibrahim Lodi and he wanted to avenge his rivalry.
After which Babur decided to fight the battle of Panipat. It was the oldest battle fought by the Mughal emperor in which gunpowder firearms and artillery were used. In this war, Ibrahim Lodi, seeing himself defeated, killed himself.
After which Babur decided to expand the Mughal Empire in India. The victory in the battle of Panipat was the first victory of the Mughal emperor. With this victory, he demonstrated the power of the Mughal Empire in India. And this was also the biggest victory of the Mughals in Indian history.
Battle of Khanwa fought against Rana Sanga – Battle of Khanwa
The Battle of Khanwa was also one of the major battles fought by the Mughal Emperor Babur. Babur fought this battle near the village of Khanwa.
Let us tell you that even after the victory in the battle of Panipat, Babur did not have a strong position in India, in fact, the Rajput ruler Rana ruler invited Babur to come to India to fight the war against Lodi, now it is Babur’s victory in Panipat. And his decision to stay in India was starting to shake.
Rana Sanga considered the Mughal emperor Babur to be a foreigner and wanted Babur to go back to Kabul. For this reason, Rana Sanga opposed Babur’s rule in India and decided to expand his territory by adding Delhi and Agra along with ousting Babur from India.
However, Babur also openly challenged Rana Singh and this plan of Rana Sangram Singh failed miserably and Babur’s army crushed Rana Sanga’s army. Let us tell you that some Afghan rulers also joined Rana Sangram Singh in the battle of Khanwa.
But the Afghan chief also had to face defeat. The battle of Khanwa was fought on 17 March 1527, in this battle Babur’s army used new equipment used in the war while the Rajputs fought their battle as usual and they were badly defeated in this battle.
Battle of Ghagra against Afghan rulers – History of Babur
History of Babur – Babur won the victory by defeating the Rajput ruler Rana Sangram Singh, but despite this, the position of the Mughal ruler Babur in India was not so strong, in fact some Afghan rulers were ruling in Bihar and Bengal at that time, who were ruled by Babur in India. Doing this was not liked, after which Babur had to face opposition from the Afghan rulers. In May 1529, Babur defeated all the Afghan rulers in Ghagra and won.
Babur had fought so many battles in his life from an early age that by now he had become a strong ruler and a large army had also been prepared with him, now any ruler was afraid to challenge Babur.
In this way, the Mughal Empire expanded rapidly in India and looted India fiercely. Along with the bravery of Babur, there are many examples of his cruelty on the pages of history, in fact Babur did not hesitate to commit massacres for his own benefit.
Babur did not believe in worship, he never asked any Hindu in India to convert to Muslim religion during his reign. Babur – Babur also built a beautiful garden in Agra, Uttar Pradesh to celebrate his victory.
Establishment of the Mughal Empire – Establishment of the Mughal Empire
History of Babur – Babur was now rapidly expanding the Mughal Empire in India and by now Babur’s rule had been secured within the Rajput desert along the Bengal border from Kandahar and the southern frontier including the forts of Ranthambore, Gwalior and Chanderi.
However, there was no stalled administration, only a conduit of feuding chiefs. The Mughal ruler had expanded his empire but still had to be pacified and organized. This was an uncertain legacy which was handed over to Babur’s eldest son Humayun after Babur’s death.
Death of Mughal Emperor Babur – Babur Death
The Mughal emperor Babur had expanded the Mughal Empire in most of India in his last time, Babur conquered Punjab, Delhi and Bihar. Babur had written his autobiography Baburnama before his death, in which all the small and big things of his bravery were mentioned in it, along with this, the Mughal ruler had also mentioned all the battles of his life in Babarnama.
In 1530, Babur died due to illness, Babur was cremated in Afghanistan. After Babur’s death, his eldest son Humayun was made the heir to the Mughal Empire and ruled the Delhi Sultanate.
Inheritance : History of Babur
History of Babur – Babur is considered the founder of the Mughal Empire, even though the Mughal Empire was strengthened by his grandson Akbar, but Babur’s efficient and powerful leadership continued to inspire the next two generations. Babur’s personality was full of qualities like culture, bold ups and downs and military genius.
Babur was a person of attractive and rich talent. He was a powerful, courageous, skilled and fortunate being the builder of the Mughal Empire. Babur was also a gifted Turkish poet who was deeply in love with nature.
He also built gardens to celebrate his victory. Along with this, Babur also wrote his autobiography Baburnama. Which was translated from Turkish to Persian in 1589 during the reign of Akbar.
The Mughal emperor Babur was also considered the national hero of Uzbekistan, and many of his poems became his popular Uzbek folk songs. In October 2005, Pakistan developed the Babur cruise missile named after him in his honour.
Monuments Built By Babur – History of Babur
In 1526, Babur’s complete suzerainty was established over India, in which Ibrahim Lodi had to face a crushing defeat by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. After this victory, Babur built a mosque in Panipat, which was built as a symbol of Babur’s Panipat victory. Which is known as “Panipat Masjid”.
Babur built a mosque in Ayodhya city of Uttar Pradesh on the site of Ramkot i.e. Ram temple under the supervision of his army chief General Mir Banki, which became famous as “Babri Masjid“.
However, apart from these two monuments, there is no information available about the construction of any other monument like Jama Masjid, Kabuli Bagh Masjid during Babur’s tenure.
Most Frequently Asked Questions about the Mughal Emperor Babar – Quiz on Babar
How many times did Babur attack India?
Answer: Five times.
When did Babur come to India? (Babar Bharat Kab Aaya Tha?)
Answer: From 1519 to 1526, Babur had invaded India five times, but he succeeded in establishing his power in India in 1526. Thus Babur came to India for the first time in 1526.
Where is Babur’s Tomb located? (Babur Tomb)
Answer: Although Babur was buried in Agra city in India, but his last wish was that he should be buried in Kabul, so he was buried again in Kabul city of Afghanistan where his tomb is present.
Who laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India? Who is the founder of the Mughal Empire in India? (Who was the Founder of Mughal Empire in India)
Answer: Zahiruddin Muhammad ‘Babur’.
When and between whom did the first battle of Panipat take place?
Answer: Between Ibrahim Lodi and Babur on 21 April 1526.
Who had invited Babur to come to India? (Who Invited Babur to Invade India?)
Answer: Daulat Khan Lodi, the ruler of Punjab and Rana Sanga, the ruler of Mewar, had invited Babur to come to India.
By what name is the war between Rana Sanga and Babur known?
Answer: Battle of Khanwa.
How many years did Babur rule in India?
Answer: 4 years.
When and where did Babur die? (Where did Babur Died & How did Babur Died)
Answer: Babur died on 26 December 1530 in the city of Agra.